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👫 Bestoon Omar
My name is Bestoon Omar Hamma-Umin Rashid. I have a Master\'s degree in Plant Breeding and Genetics. I am Assistant Professor in the Biotechnology and Crop Science Department, College of Agricultural E
👫 Bestoon Omar
📕 The Origin of the Kurds
Ferdinand Hennerbichler
The Origin of the Kurds
Abstract
Findings of this first interdisciplinary study suggest to connote Kurds as indigenous Northern Fertile Crescent people and descendants of an
📕 The Origin of the Kurds
👫 Ferdinand Hennerbichler
Ferdinand Hennerbichler Born 03-11-1946 in Linz, Upper Austria ,Nationality: European of Austrian origin ,Current Position: Historian, ormer Diplomat and Journalist
EDUCATION
1957-1965 Collegium Pet
👫 Ferdinand Hennerbichler
📕 Color Atlas Of The Breast
By: Hiwa Omer Ahmed
📕 Color Atlas Of The Breast
📕 Color Altas Of Laparoscopy
By: Dr. Hiw Omer Ahmed
📕 Color Altas Of Laparoscopy
📕 HONOUR
The true story of the police investigation into the \'honour\' killing of Banaz Mahmod
ACHIEVING JUSTICE FOR BANAZ MAHMOD
CAROLINE GOODE[1]
📕 HONOUR
🎵 Honour Drama on ITV in the UK
Keeley Hawes stars in the new two-parter but who else can we expect to see in the true-life drama about the brutal murder of Banaz Mahmod?
A police chief\'s determination to uncover what happened to a
🎵 Honour Drama on ITV in the UK
🏰 Mahabad River
Mahabad River is an endorheic river in Mahabad county Iran, located at 36°46′03″N 45°42′06″E and which flows into the southern end of Lake Urmia.
The river has been crossed by the Mahabad Dam near th
🏰 Mahabad River
🏰 Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه‎, Daryâche-ye Orumiye) is an endorheic salt lake in Iran.The lake is located between the provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan in Iran, and west of the so
🏰 Lake Urmia
🏰 Urmia
Urmia or Orumiyeh[nb 1] (Persian: ارومیه‎, pronounced [oɾumiˈje] (About this soundlisten);[nb 2] Azerbaijani: اورمیهor اورمو‎, romanized: Urmiya or Urmu, Kurdish: Ûrmiyê ,ورمێ‎;Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ‎, romani
🏰 Urmia
🌏 Kingdom of Kurdistan in 1923
Kingdom of Kurdistan in 1923[1]
🌏 Kingdom of Kurdistan in 1923
🌏 Republic of Mahabad
Republic of Mahabad 1945-1946[1]
🌏 Republic of Mahabad
👫 Narmin Mustafa Awez
A Kurdish artist based in Sulaymaniyah.
She holds a MA from the College of Fine Arts, University of Sulaimany, and PHD nominate from the same institute.
Her works is mainly, painting, extending it
👫 Narmin Mustafa Awez
☂️ Hengaw Organization for Human Rights
Hengaw Organization for Human Rights was founded in October 2016 by a group of human rights activists to report about the extensive human rights violations that were occurring in the Kurdish areas in
☂️ Hengaw Organization for Human Rights
📕 Evaluation of Local Asphalt Production and Performance Grade (PG) for Kurdistan Region-Iraq
Agreen Abdoulla Azeez
Erbil - 2019
📕 Evaluation of Local Asphalt Production and Performance Grade (PG) for Kurdistan Region-Iraq
👫 Araz Ramazan Ahmad
DR. Araz Ramazan Ahmad is currently a lecturer and director of Media office at the University of Raparin. At the same time, he works as a journalist and writer since 2004, as he is a staff member of K
👫 Araz Ramazan Ahmad
📕 The stories of shilan and miran
Shilan Jamal Shahoyi
📕 The stories of shilan and miran
📕 The Death Trap as a Political Play by Saki
A Research Project Submitted to the Department of English, College of language at the University of Salahaddin-Hawler in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of B.A in Language and Li
📕 The Death Trap as a Political Play by Saki
🎵 My Sweet Pepper Land
My Sweet Pepper Land is a 2013 Kurdish-language internationally co-produced drama film directed by Huner Saleem.It was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival It was
🎵 My Sweet Pepper Land
🎵 Vodka Lemon
Vodka Lemon (Kurdish Sorani: ڤۆدکا لیمۆ) is a 2003 film directed by the Iraqi–Kurdish director Hiner Saleem.
Produced by Fabrice Guez
Written by Lei Dinety
Pauline Gouzenne
Hiner Saleem
Starring
🎵 Vodka Lemon
👫 Hiner Saleem
Huner Saleem (Kurdish: هونه‌ر سەلیم), also transliterated as Huner Salim, (born 09-03-1964), is an Iraqi–Kurdish film director. He was born in the town of Aqrah (Akre) in Iraqi Kurdistan. He left Iraq
👫 Hiner Saleem
🎵 Kilomètre Zéro
Kilomètre zéro (Sorani Kurdish: کیلۆمەتری سفر) is a 2005 film written, produced, and directed by the Kurdish director Hiner Saleem. Kilometre Zero is the first Iraqi film chosen for the official Canne
🎵 Kilomètre Zéro
☂️ Kurdistan Botanical Foundation -KBF
Kurdistan Botanical Foundation -KBF
فاوندەیشنی رووەکی کوردستان [1]
The Kurdistan Botanical Foundation (hereafter KBF) is a non-profit organization that was established by a group of botanists and en
☂️ Kurdistan Botanical Foundation -KBF
📖 Articles
Yezidism (Alevism)
📖 Articles
Migrant crisis: The truth a...
📝 Documents
Turkey v Syria's Kurds: The...
👫 Biography
Asenath Barzani
👫 Biography
Zeynab Jalalian
📝 Who are the Kurds? | Group: Documents | Articles language: 🇬🇧 English
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Who are the Kurds?
Between 25 and 35 million Kurds inhabit a mountainous region straddling the borders of Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran and Armenia. They make up the fourth-largest ethnic group in the Middle East, but they have never obtained a permanent nation state.
Where do they come from?

kurdstan


The Kurds are one of the indigenous peoples of the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands in what are now south-eastern Turkey, north-eastern Syria, northern Iraq, north-western Iran and south-western Armenia.
Today, they form a distinctive community, united through race, culture and language, even though they have no standard dialect. They also adhere to a number of different religions and creeds, although the majority are Sunni Muslims.
Why don't they have a state?
In the early 20th Century, many Kurds began to consider the creation of a homeland - generally referred to as Kurdistan. After World War One and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, the victorious Western allies made provision for a Kurdish state in the 1920 Treaty of Sevres.
Such hopes were dashed three years later, however, when the Treaty of Lausanne, which set the boundaries of modern Turkey, made no provision for a Kurdish state and left Kurds with minority status in their respective countries. Over the next 80 years, any move by Kurds to set up an independent state was brutally quashed.
Why were Kurds at the forefront of the fight against IS?

Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga fighters


n mid-2013, the jihadist group Islamic State (IS) turned its sights on three Kurdish enclaves that bordered territory under its control in northern Syria. It launched repeated attacks that until mid-2014 were repelled by the People's Protection Units (YPG) - the armed wing of the Syrian Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD).
An IS advance in northern Iraq in June 2014 also drew that country's Kurds into the conflict. The government of Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan Region sent its Peshmerga forces to areas abandoned by the Iraqi army.
In August 2014, the jihadists launched a surprise offensive and the Peshmerga withdrew from several areas. A number of towns inhabited by religious minorities fell, notably Sinjar, where IS militants killed or captured thousands of Yazidis.
In response, a US-led multinational coalition launched air strikes in northern Iraq and sent military advisers to help the Peshmerga. The YPG and the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), which has fought for Kurdish autonomy in Turkey for three decades and has bases in Iraq, also came to their aid.
In September 2014, IS launched an assault on the enclave around the northern Syrian Kurdish town of Kobane, forcing tens of thousands of people to flee across the nearby Turkish border. Despite the proximity of the fighting, Turkey refused to attack IS positions or allow Turkish Kurds to cross to defend it.
In January 2015, after a battle that left at least 1,600 people dead, Kurdish forces regained control of Kobane.

Kobane


The Kurds - fighting alongside several local Arab militias under the banner of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) alliance, and helped by US-led coalition air strikes, weapons and advisers - then steadily drove IS out of tens of thousands of square kilometres of territory in north-eastern Syria and established control over a large stretch of the border with Turkey.
In October 2017, SDF fighters captured the de facto IS capital of Raqqa and then advanced south-eastwards into the neighbouring province of Deir al-Zour - the jihadists' last major foothold in Syria.
The last pocket of territory held by IS in Syria - around the village of Baghouz - fell to the SDF in March 2019. The SDF hailed the total elimination of the IS caliphate, but it warned that jihadist sleeper cells remained a great threat to the world.
The SDF was also left to deal with the thousands of suspected IS militants captured during the last two years of the battle, as well as tens of thousands of displaced women and children associated with IS fighters. The US called for the repatriation of foreign nationals among them, but most of their home countries refused to do so.
Now, the Kurds face a military offensive by Turkey, which wants to set up a 32km (20-mile) deep safe zone inside north-eastern Syria to protect its border and resettle up to 2 million Syrian refugees. The SDF says it will defend its territory at all costs and that hard-won gains in the battle against IS are being put at risk.
The Syrian government, which is backed by Russia, also continues to promise to take back control of all of Syria.
Why does Turkey see Kurds as a threat?
There is deep-seated hostility between the Turkish state and the country's Kurds, who constitute 15% to 20% of the population.
Kurds received harsh treatment at the hands of the Turkish authorities for generations. In response to uprisings in the 1920s and 1930s, many Kurds were resettled, Kurdish names and costumes were banned, the use of the Kurdish language was restricted, and even the existence of a Kurdish ethnic identity was denied, with people designated Mountain Turks.

PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan


In 1978, Abdullah Ocalan established the PKK, which called for an independent state within Turkey. Six years later, the group began an armed struggle. Since then, more than 40,000 people have been killed and hundreds of thousands displaced.
In the 1990s the PKK rolled back on its demand for independence, calling instead for greater cultural and political autonomy, but continued to fight. In 2013, a ceasefire was agreed after secret talks were held.
The ceasefire collapsed in July 2015, after a suicide bombing blamed on IS killed 33 young activists in the mainly Kurdish town of Suruc, near the Syrian border. The PKK accused the authorities of complicity and attacked Turkish soldiers and police. The Turkish government subsequently launched what it called a synchronised war on terror against the PKK and IS.
Since then, several thousand people - including hundreds of civilians - have been killed in clashes in south-eastern Turkey.
Turkey has maintained a military presence in northern Syria since August 2016, when it sent troops and tanks over the border to support a Syrian rebel offensive against IS. Those forces captured the key border town of Jarablus, preventing the YPG-led SDF from seizing the territory itself and linking up with the Kurdish enclave of Afrin to the west.
In 2018, Turkish troops and allied Syrian rebels launched an operation to expel YPG fighters from Afrin. Dozens of civilians were killed and tens of thousands displaced.
Turkey's government says the YPG and the PYD are extensions of the PKK, share its goal of secession through armed struggle, and are terrorist organisations that must be eliminated.[1]
🗄 Sources
[1] 📡 Website | 🏳️ کوردیی ناوەڕاست | BBC NEWS
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1.👁️09-10-2019
☂️ Parties & Organizations
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🏳️ Articles language: 🇬🇧 English
📅 Publication date: 09-10-2019
🗺 Country - Province: 🌄 Kurdistan
🌐 Language - Dialect: 🇬🇧 English

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Added by (Jiwan O Ehmed) on Oct 9 2019 11:39PM
👌 This article has been reviewed and released by (Manu Berzincî) on Oct 10 2019 12:15AM
✍️ This item recently updated by (Hawrê Baxewan) on: Nov 26 2019 12:28AM
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Yezidism (Alevism)
History/Founder: Yezidis are a Kurdish sect, is believed by some to be named after their supposed founder Yezid, the Umayyad Caliph (more probable is that Yezidi is related to the Sumerian, Ezidi, \'shining path,\' or from the Pahlavi word Yazd, \'angel.\'). The Yezidi revere the Prophet Mohammed and the Sufi mystic Adi Musafir, a descendent of the Umayyad Caliphs (Kalifs). Adi is credited with writing many of the Yezidi Holy texts and is most likely to be the originator of the faith. Islamic writin
Yezidism (Alevism)
Migrant crisis: The truth about the boy on the beach Aylan Kurdi
His lifeless body cradled in a policeman’s arms, the drowned boy on the beach has become a symbol for the suffering of Syrian refugees.
Three-year-old Alan Kurdi (his first name was initially incorrectly given as Aylan) perished along with his five-year-old brother and mother off the coast of Turkey.
His father survived and gave a heart-rending account of how he watched his family die after the flimsy dinghy that was supposed to carry them to a brighter future was swamped by rough seas.
They
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Turkey v Syria\'s Kurds: The short, medium and long story
The Turkish military has launched a major cross-border operation in north-eastern Syria against a Kurdish-led militia alliance allied to the United States.
The move came after US troops, who relied on the militia alliance to defeat the Islamic State (IS) group on the ground in Syria, withdrew from the border area.
We\'ve boiled down why it matters.
Why has Turkey launched an assault?
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Asenath Barzani, Born to Samuel Ben Nathanel halevi in 1590 CE in the Kurdish city of Mosul in Southern Kurdistan. She was raised by her father Samuel who taught her Kabbalah and excused her from all daily tasks that other young girl her age usually did. She dedicated her life to studying and memorizing the Holy words of God. Asenath was quoted by Rabbi Tirzah Firestone, The Receiving; Recovering Feminine Wisdom p. 112 as saying “Never in my life did I step outside of my home. I was the daughter
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Zeynab Jalalian
Zeynab Jalalian, born in 1982, is a Kurdish activist from a small village called Deim Qeshlaq located around Maku in Eastern Azerbaijan province in Iran. She was arrested in February 2007 by the forces of Kermanshah Intelligence Bureau on charges of membership in PJAK (Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan).
She was interrogated at Intelligence Detention Centre in Kermanshah for a month while being seriously tortured both mentally and physically. She was then transferred to Kermanshah Youth Rehabi
Zeynab Jalalian

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